12 Days of Christmas: Fact & Fiction by Joan Reeves

Holiday_SpokenJust about everyone knows the Christmas standard, The Twelve Days Of Christmas, but do you know the fiction and the facts regarding this song?

I’m the kind of person who likes to dig for facts about things. The origin of a creative work is of great interest to me. I hope it is for you too.

In 1995, an essay entitled An Underground Catechism was posted by Father Hal Stockert on the online Catholic Information Network. Purporting to be the truth behind the popular song The Twelve Days of Christmas, the article resulted in a storm of controversy and was subsequently found to be not historically accurate, resulting in the article being withdrawn.

The article was published again a few years ago and amended to read:

“It has come to our attention that this tale is made up of both fact and fiction. Hopefully it will be accepted in the spirit it was written. As an encouragement to people to keep their faith alive, when it is easy, and when any outward expressions of their faith could mean their life. Today there are still people living under similar conditions, may this tale give them courage, and determination to use any creative means at their disposal to keep their faith alive.”

The essay by Father Stockert has been debunked by many people on the Internet through the years. As a Christian, I wish Father Stockert had posted the essay as his interpretation of the significance of the numbers from one to twelve, symbolic of the religious significance of the twelve days between Christmas Day and Epiphany, January 6, when the three wise men arrived on the scene.

I did a little research and offer you:

The True History of The 12 Days of Christmas

The Twelve Days of Christmas is an English Christmas carol that enumerates a series of gifts given on each of the twelve days of Christmas. Although first published in England in 1780, the song may be French in origin.

The song, whose specific origins are obviously unknown, may have begun as a Twelfth Night “memories and forfeits” game. A leader would recite a verse, each of the players repeat the verse, then the leader would add another verse, etc. until a player would make a mistake. The player who messed up the verses would have to pay a penalty, or forfeit, such as a kiss or a sweet.

The 12 days in the song are the 12 days starting Christmas Day. In some traditions, the first day is the day after Christmas, December 26, commonly called Boxing Day in England. (This day is also known as St. Stephen’s Day, the feast day of St. Stephen Protomartyr.) The 12th day is the day before Epiphany, or the Feast of the Epiphany, January 6.

Twelfth Night is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as “the evening of the fifth of January, preceding Twelfth Day, the eve of the Epiphany, formerly the last day of the Christmas festivities and observed as a time of merrymaking.”

In 1910, the song came to the United States, courtesy of Emily Brown, of the Downer Teacher’s College in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, who had found the song in an English music store. She is said to have used the song for the school Christmas pageant.

This Christmas, I’d like to share with you Father Stockert’s essay. One can only assume that he must have come by this explanation of the song at some point in his life and thought it to be the true record of the song’s history. Whether you find it spiritually rewarding or just a footnote as another Internet urban myth debunked, at least you’ll be entertained and learn the true history of the song, along with a little world history and Christian history in the bargain.

Father Stockert’s Essay

To most, the Christmas song, The Twelve Days of Christmas, is a nonsense rhyme set to music, but it’s more than just a repetitious melody about a bunch of strange gifts.

From 1558 to 1829, after Henry VIII abolished Catholicism and established the Church of England in order to facilitate and legalize his marriage to Anne Boleyn, Catholics in England were banned from any private or public practice of their faith. It was a crime to be a Catholic.

The Twelve Days of Christmas was written as a catechism song to help young Catholics learn the tenets of their faith. A memory aid was necessary since to be caught with anything in writing that indicated adherence to the Catholic faith could not only get you imprisoned but also could get you hanged or beheaded.

The gifts mentioned in the song had hidden meanings. The true love mentioned in the song doesn’t refer to an earthly suitor, it refers to God Himself. The me who receives the presents refers to every baptized person. The partridge in a pear tree is Jesus Christ, the Son of God. In the song, Christ is symbolically presented as a mother partridge which feigns injury to decoy predators from her helpless nestlings, much in memory of the expression of Christ’s sadness over the fate of Jerusalem: “Jerusalem! Jerusalem! How often would I have sheltered thee under my wings, as a hen does her chicks, but thou wouldst not have it so….”

The symbolism of the song in its entirety:

Day 1
A Partridge in a Pear Tree = Jesus Christ, Our Lord

Day 2
2 Turtle Doves = The Old and New Testaments

Day 3
3 French Hens = Faith, Hope and Love, the Theological Virtues

Day 4
4 Calling Birds = the 4 Gospels and/or the 4 Evangelists
Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
Originally this was a colly bird. Colly means black as coal so a colly bird was probably a black bird.

Day 5
5 Golden Rings = the first 5 Books of the Old Testament, the Pentateuch
Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy give the history of man’s fall from grace. Originally this was a gold-ringed pheasant, another bird which re-establishes the first seven verses as being birds.

Day 6
6 Geese A-laying = the 6 Days of Creation

Day 7
7 Swans A-swimming = the 7 Gifts of the Holy Spirit: the 7 Sacraments
Prophecy, Ministry, Teaching, Exhortation, Giving, Leading, and Compassion

Day 8
8 Maids A-milking = the 8 Beatitudes
Blessed are: the poor in spirit, those who mourn, the meek, those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, the merciful, the pure in heart, the peacemakers, those who are persecuted for righteousness’ sake.

Day 9
9 Ladies Dancing = the 9 Fruits of the Holy Spirit
Love, Joy, Peace, Patience, Kindness, Generosity, Faithfulness, Gentleness, Self-control

Day 10
10 Lords A-leaping = the 10 Commandments

Day 11
11 Pipers Piping = the 11 Faithful Apostles
Simon Peter, Andrew, James, John, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James bar Alphaeus, Simon the Zealot, Judas bar James. The list does not include the twelfth disciple, Judas Iscariot, who betrayed Jesus to the religious leaders and the Romans.

Day 12
12 Drummers Drumming = the 12 Points of Doctrine in the Apostle’s Creed
1. I believe in God, the Father almighty, creator of heaven and earth.
2. I believe in Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord.
3. He was conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit and born of the virgin Mary.
4. He suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died, and was buried. He descended into hell (the grave).
5. On the third day he rose again. He ascended into heaven, and is seated at the right hand of God the Father.
6. He will come again to judge the living and the dead.
7. I believe in the Holy Spirit, 8. the holy catholic (universal) Church, 9. the communion of saints,
10. the forgiveness of sins, 11. the resurrection of the body, and
12. and life everlasting.

Please accept my good wishes for you and yours. Happy Holidays and a very Happy New Year to you.

(Joan Reeves writes funny, sexy Romance Novels. Make some time for you this holiday season and enjoy one of her novels, perhaps Nobody’s Cinderella, a Christmas Romantic Comedy, available at ebook sellers. Audio editions are available at Audible and iTunes. For more information, visit SlingWords, Joan’s Blog, or her Website.)

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About Joan Reeves

Joan Reeves is a NY Times and a USA Today bestselling author of Contemporary Romance. She is multi-published in print, ebooks, and audio books. Sign up for Joan's email list: http://eepurl.com/Yk61n and visit her on her blog http://SlingWords.blogspot.com.
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10 Responses to 12 Days of Christmas: Fact & Fiction by Joan Reeves

  1. Jill James says:

    Joan, I kind of like the thought that the song was meant to teach children something that it wasn’t safe to teach them at the time. And I love the song itself too. Merry Christmas!

    Like

  2. E. Ayers says:

    Love this post. I never knew about Father Stockert’s essay. Fascinating. Love the song. Thanks.

    Like

  3. susanrhughes says:

    Now I’ll have that stuck in my head all day!

    Like

  4. Pingback: Rewrite: The Twelve Days Of Christmas | emilykarn

  5. leighmorgan1 says:

    Thanks, Joan! I love to research and read about the history and etymology of our words, customs and the songs we love. What a great post. Have a Wonderful Holiday…May you and all those you in your heart find joy and every Blessing in the New Year.

    Like

    • Joan Reeves says:

      Hello, Leigh! I managed to get online. Hurray. Lately, just getting internet up is a major achievement. Thank you. I’m glad you enjoyed the post. It sounds as if you and I have a lot of things in common. I return my wishes for joy, peace, and happiness!

      Like

  6. Great post, Joan. Thanks for the song also! Happy New Year!

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